I received my PhD in modern European history from the University of Wisconsin in 1968. I am currently professor emeritus from the Department of History, State University of New York at Fredonia. During my active career , I focused primarily on police and security agencies in modern industrial societies, publishing numerous articles in professional journals, essays in anthologies, encyclopedia entries, and two monographs, The Foundations of the Nazi Police State (University of Kentucky Press, 1990) and Hitler's Enforcers (Oxford University Press, 1996). I served as consultant to the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum collecting documentary evidence in former Soviet archives, and was active with the Holocaust Education Foundation. Since retiring, I continue research and writing in that specialization, but have also expanded into the local history of my community, Germantown, Tennessee.