John Oswald Francis, usually known as J.O., was born in Merthyr Tydfil in 1882. His father David Francis was a blacksmith from Merthyr and his mother Dorothy had moved to Merthyr from West Wales. She spoke Welsh and J.O. may have spoken Welsh as a child, but, like so many of his generation, he lost whatever Welsh he might have had when he grew up, although he learnt Welsh in middle age. He was one of the first pupils at the new Intermediate School in Merthyr, which enabled him to go to the University of Wales College, Aberystwyth. During his time there he joined the Fabian Society, but then became a lifelong member of the Liberal Party. Francis graduated with a First in English in 1903, spent some time in France and then returned to …
von Rothkirch, Alyce. "J. O. Francis". The Literary Encyclopedia. First published 20 May 2011; last revised 30 November -1.
[http://www.litencyc.com/php/speople.php?rec=true&UID=12953, accessed 27 April 2015.]