Sir Muhammad Iqbal

(1599 words)

Muhammad Iqbal was a pre-eminent twentieth century Urdu and Persian poet, and an influential spokesman for Muslim separatism in India. He gave the Presidential Addresses in 1930 and 1932 at the annual sessions of the All-India Muslim League, the party which eventually spearheaded the movement for Pakistan. He was one of the delegates at the Round Table Conferences of 1930 and 1932 convened by the British government to discuss India’s constitutional future. His more influential poems were translated into English by eminent Orientalists, such as R.A. Nicholson (1920) and A.J. Arberry (1953, 1966), and the British novelist E.M. Forster wrote a review of one of these translations, in which he discussed some of Iqbal’s other poems (…

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Majeed, Javed. "Sir Muhammad Iqbal". The Literary Encyclopedia. First published 26 July 2010
[, accessed 29 September 2016.]

Articles on Iqbal's works

  1. Asrar-e Khudi [Secrets of the Self]
  2. Bang-e Dara [The Caravan’s Bell]
  3. Javed Nama [Book of Eternity]
  4. Payam-e Mashriq [Message of the East]
  5. Rumuz-e Bekhudi [Mysteries of Selflessness]
  6. The Development of Metaphysics in Persia
  7. The Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam