League of Schmalkalden/ Schmalkaldic League (80 words)
Historical Context Note
Formed by German Protestants to stand against the Emperor, Charles V, and his Catholic allies. The original members include John Frederick I, Elector of Saxony, Philip Landgrave of Hesse, Prince Wolfgang of Anhalt, the Counts Mansfeld and the cities of Magdeburg and Bremen. In February 1531 the Schmalkaldic League holds a second meeting at which the Dukes of Brunswick and the city of Lubeck join. The Swiss cities refuse to join the League; Zwingli attacks the quasi-Catholic ceremonial of Lutheran churches.
Editors. "League of Schmalkalden/ Schmalkaldic League". The Literary Encyclopedia. First published 01 March 2010
[http://www.litencyc.com/php/stopics.php?rec=true&UID=9993, accessed 24 October 2016.]