Editors. "Philip II deposed by the Dutch Estates General; this was a declaration of war". The Literary Encyclopedia. First published 01 November 2010
[http://www.litencyc.com/php/stopics.php?rec=true&UID=10209, accessed 13 December 2013.]
The northern provinces of the Netherlands effectively declare independence in the Act of Abjuration, by which they renounce any allegiance to Philip II of Spain.