Editors. "The Black Hawk War begins". The Literary Encyclopedia. First published 01 March 2010
[http://www.litencyc.com/php/stopics.php?rec=true&UID=10877, accessed 13 December 2013.]
Black Hawk, chief of the Sauk Indians, crosses the Mississippi River to plant corn on the tribe's old fields in Illinois, after his community has failed to support itself in the new land they were given in Iowa. Capt. The Sauk surrendered in August, after many older men, women, and children were massacred in Wisconsin while carrying white flags.