In 1877 the newly elected Republican President Rutherford B. Hayes (4th October, 1822 - 17th January, 1893) withdrew federal troops from the Southern states. Hayes's presidency followed a highly disputed presidential election 1876 in which Democrat Samuel J. Tilden (9th February, 1814 - 4th August, 1886) narrowly won the popular vote, whilst the result of the ballot in a number of Southern states remained undecided. Tilden was outmaneuvered by the Republicans, who agreed to withdraw troops in order to gain the support of the Southern Democrats, a compromise that allowed Hayes enough votes to take the presidency. The removal of troops brought the Reconstruction era to an end.
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