[Preliminary Entry] The siege of Vienna by Turkish forces came at the end of a century of war in eastern Europe between the Ottoman empire, Russia, Austro-Hungary and Poland. In retrospect the siege was the high-water mark of Ottoman expansion which began as the Ottomans moved out wards from Anatolia (1300-1400) and finally ended in defeat during the First World War, leading to the formation of the modern Turkish Republic in 1922.
Editors. "Turkey besieges Vienna". The Literary Encyclopedia. First published 08 April 2004; last revised 30 November -1.
[http://www.litencyc.com/php/stopics.php?rec=true&UID=1408, accessed 25 April 2015.]