Editors. "Francis I and Charles V sign the Peace of Madrid". The Literary Encyclopedia. First published 01 November 2010
[http://www.litencyc.com/php/stopics.php?rec=true&UID=14357, accessed 09 December 2013.]
In the wake of the French defeat at the Battle of Pavia, Francis I of France and Holy Roman Emperor Charles V sign the Peace of Madrid. This treaty is designed for the utter humiliation of Francis, who is forced to give up the Duchy of Burgundy and his claims to Naples, Milan, Asti, Genoa, Flanders and Artois. He also promises not to give any aid to Navarre of Gelders, and he has to leave his two eldest sons in Spain as hostages.