Editors. "Pope Clement VII forms the League of Cognac". The Literary Encyclopedia. First published 01 November 2010
[http://www.litencyc.com/php/stopics.php?rec=true&UID=14365, accessed 19 December 2013.]
Pope Clement VII forms the League of Cognac to pose an aggressive threat to Holy Roman Emperor Charles V. This League is joined by Venice, Florence, Milan and France, in the process overturning the Peace of Madrid which had been signed between France and Spain that very January. It sought to force the Emperor to restore the French king's sons, who were currently being kept as hostages in Spain. It also aimed to make Francesco Sforza independent sovereign of Milan, and restore the ancient liberties of the other Italian States. England does not officially join the League: Cardinal Wolsey supports its principles but refuses to commit English resources.