Editors. "France and Turkey sign an alliance and a commercial treaty". The Literary Encyclopedia. First published 01 November 2010
[http://www.litencyc.com/php/stopics.php?rec=true&UID=14538, accessed 12 December 2013.]
France signs an offensive and defensive alliance with the Ottoman Turks, focused against their common enemy Emperor Charles V. At the time, this treaty across religious boundaries was viewed as scandalous and opportunistic in Europe, at a time when the Pope was still calling for the continent's powers to rally together in a crusade against the Turkish 'infidels'.