Editors. "The Dauphin Francis dies". The Literary Encyclopedia. First published 01 November 2010
[http://www.litencyc.com/php/stopics.php?rec=true&UID=14568, accessed 22 December 2013.]
The French Dauphin, Francis de Valois, dies aged 18. Between the ages of eight and eleven he spent three years in the captivity of Charles V in Madrid in the wake of the Battle of Pavia, an experience that changed him permanently and probably gave him the tuberculosis that eventually claimed his life.