Editors. "The Dauphin Francis dies". The Literary Encyclopedia. First published 01 November 2010; last revised 30 November -1.
[http://www.litencyc.com/php/stopics.php?rec=true&UID=14568, accessed 19 April 2015.]
The French Dauphin, Francis de Valois, dies aged 18. Between the ages of eight and eleven he spent three years in the captivity of Charles V in Madrid in the wake of the Battle of Pavia, an experience that changed him permanently and probably gave him the tuberculosis that eventually claimed his life.
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