Editors. "Charles V manipulates the Duke of Cleves". The Literary Encyclopedia. First published 01 November 2010
[http://www.litencyc.com/php/stopics.php?rec=true&UID=14689, accessed 09 December 2013.]
Holy Roman Emperor Charles V asserts his power over the Duke of Cleves, who is an ally of Francis I. He compels the Duke to yield the territories of Gelderland and Zutphen to the Netherlands, and to discontinue his alliances with France, Denmark and Sweden.