Editors. "Spanish invade Portugal". The Literary Encyclopedia. First published 01 February 2011
[http://www.litencyc.com/php/stopics.php?rec=true&UID=15253, accessed 12 December 2013.]
A Spanish army under the Duke of Alva invades Portugal to assert Philip II's claim to the Portuguese throne. They defeat the supporters of Don Antonio, a rival claimant, at the battle of Alcantana near Lisbon, and win the throne for Philip. As a result of this conquest, Spain doubles her colonial empire and improves her commercial prospects, as the Porguese coastline offers valuable shipping and harbours for trading.