Editors. "Peace negotiations leading to the 1648 Treaty of Westphalia open". The Literary Encyclopedia. First published 01 February 2011
[http://www.litencyc.com/php/stopics.php?rec=true&UID=16245, accessed 09 December 2013.]
Peace negotiations aimed at bringing an end to the Thirty Years War open between the Holy Roman Empire and France at Münster, while parallel negotiations between the Empire and Sweden open at Osnabrück. These end in success, producing the 1648 Treaty of Westphalia.