Editors. "Spanish are defeated by the Portuguese and British at Montes Claros". The Literary Encyclopedia. First published 01 April 2011
[http://www.litencyc.com/php/stopics.php?rec=true&UID=16508, accessed 13 December 2013.]
A joint force of the British and Portuguese defeats the Spanish at Montes Claros. A further victory at Villa Viciosa secures Portugal's independence. It had been subsumed within the Spanish monarchy since 1580, when Philip II seized the vacant throne.