In the years following the Exclusion Crisis and Popish Plot (1678, 1681), Charles II’s government and its Tory-Anglican allies increased political pressure on the Whigs, removing local officials of suspect loyalty and bringing charges of treason against senior political men. In 1681 the Earl of Shaftesbury, leader of the opposition, was imprisoned in the for treason and then forced to flee to Holland where he died in 1683.
In this context, in April 1683 a group of committed republicans planned the assassination of Charles and his brother James (the future James II) as they travelled back to London from the Newmarket races. The assassination was to be followed by the seizure of the Tower of London and a general uprising …
Clark, Robert. "Rye House Plot". The Literary Encyclopedia. First published 11 April 2007
[http://www.litencyc.com/php/stopics.php?rec=true&UID=1724, accessed 25 January 2017.]