Editors. "League of Turin formed against the Emperor". The Literary Encyclopedia. First published 01 April 2011
[http://www.litencyc.com/php/stopics.php?rec=true&UID=17362, accessed 26 May 2013.]
France, Spain and Sardinia form the League of Turin against the Holy Roman Emperor. They plan for France to obtain Savoy, while Sardinia is to be recompensed with Milan. Don Carlos is to renounce Parma and the succession to Tuscany in favour of his brother, in return for Naples, Sicily and Presidi.