Editors. "Spanish invasion of Portugal". The Literary Encyclopedia. First published 30 December 2011
[http://www.litencyc.com/php/stopics.php?rec=true&UID=17781, accessed 12 December 2013.]
A Spanish force invades Portugal, after the Portuguese refuse to accept a Franco-Spanish order to close their ports to British ships and to remain neutral in this time of war. The Spanish later take Braganza and Almeida.