Editors. "Ferdinand VII of Spain refuses to leave Madrid despite French invasion". The Literary Encyclopedia. First published 30 December 2011
[http://www.litencyc.com/php/stopics.php?rec=true&UID=17839, accessed 19 December 2013.]
Ferdinand VII of Spain refuses to leave Madrid in the face of French invasion. In response, he is declared to be temporarily incapacitated, and a provisional Regency of the Cortes is established to replace him.