Editors. "Formal union of Venice, Sardinia and Lombardy". The Literary Encyclopedia. First published 30 December 2011
[http://www.litencyc.com/php/stopics.php?rec=true&UID=18168, accessed 20 June 2013.]
Venice, Sardinia and Lombardy create a formal union of Italian states that have secured independence through revolution from their erstwhile Austrian rulers. However, this is a short-lived state of affairs, since Austria regains control of all this territory the following year.