Editors. "Franco-Spanish blockade of Cochin-China begins". The Literary Encyclopedia. First published 30 December 2011
[http://www.litencyc.com/php/stopics.php?rec=true&UID=18361, accessed 20 December 2013.]
France and Spain begin to blockade southern Vietnam, in a punitive campaign designed to revenge the Vietnamese execution of three Jesuit missionaries the previous year. In the event, the campaign continues until 1862, and ends with the establishment of the French colony of Cochinchina.