Editors. "Anglo-French convention defines spheres of influence in Africa". The Literary Encyclopedia. First published 30 December 2011
[http://www.litencyc.com/php/stopics.php?rec=true&UID=19036, accessed 13 December 2013.]
Britain and France sign a convention defining their respective spheres of influence in Nigeria, the British Protectorate in Zanzibar and Pemba and the French Protectorate in Madagascar.