Editors. "Giovanni Giolitti replaces Marquis di Rudin as premier of Italy". The Literary Encyclopedia. First published 30 December 2011
[http://www.litencyc.com/php/stopics.php?rec=true&UID=19075, accessed 20 December 2013.]
After the Marquis di Rudini is forced to step down from the post of prime minister of Italy, he is succeeded by Liberal politician Giovanni Giolitti, for whom this is to be his first of five terms in office.