Editors. "Franco-Russian alliance is signed". The Literary Encyclopedia. First published 30 December 2011
[http://www.litencyc.com/php/stopics.php?rec=true&UID=19088, accessed 25 May 2013.]
France and Russia sign an alliance, following up the military convention they had signed the previous October which promised to come to each other's aid if attacked by any member of the Triple Alliance.