Editors. "Franco-Russian alliance is signed". The Literary Encyclopedia. First published 30 December 2011
[http://www.litencyc.com/php/stopics.php?rec=true&UID=19088, accessed 18 April 2014.]
France and Russia sign an alliance, following up the military convention they had signed the previous October which promised to come to each other's aid if attacked by any member of the Triple Alliance.