Editors. "Leon Bourgeois forms Radical ministry in France". The Literary Encyclopedia. First published 30 December 2011
[http://www.litencyc.com/php/stopics.php?rec=true&UID=19173, accessed 11 December 2013.]
French prime minister Alexandre Ribot falls from power after dissatisfaction over the mismanagement and costs of the Madagascar expedition, as well as difficult social conditions within France. He is succeeded by Leon Bourgeois, who forms a Radical ministry.