Editors. "Revival of Young Turk movement". The Literary Encyclopedia. First published 30 December 2011; last revised 30 November -1.
[http://www.litencyc.com/php/stopics.php?rec=true&UID=19208, accessed 18 April 2015.]
The Young Turk movement, a loose collection of groups favouring reform of the Ottoman Empire and constitutional rather than monarchical rule, is revived in the face of insurrection in Crete and threats from Britain and Russia.
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