Editors. "Dreyfus is condemned at retrial but then pardoned by presidential decree". The Literary Encyclopedia. First published 30 December 2011
[http://www.litencyc.com/php/stopics.php?rec=true&UID=19292, accessed 19 June 2013.]
In France, the Dreyfus Affair is finally resolved, though not without more complications. The Jewish army officer who was convicted of treason in 1894 is retried at a Rennes court martial, and Alfred Dreyfus is again condemned although 'with extenuating circumstances'. However, on 19th September he is pardoned by a presidential decree, and the following day he is finally released.