Editors. "Marshal Francisco Serrano becomes dictator in Spain". The Literary Encyclopedia. First published 30 December 2011
[http://www.litencyc.com/php/stopics.php?rec=true&UID=19310, accessed 17 April 2014.]
Spanish President Emilio Castelar, who was appointment dictator in an attempt to restore order under a centralised republic in September, resigned on 2nd January and retired from politics. On the following day, Marshal Francisco Serrano takes his place as dictator.