Editors. "Marshal Francisco Serrano becomes dictator in Spain". The Literary Encyclopedia. First published 30 December 2011; last revised 30 November -1.
[http://www.litencyc.com/php/stopics.php?rec=true&UID=19310, accessed 19 April 2015.]
Spanish President Emilio Castelar, who was appointment dictator in an attempt to restore order under a centralised republic in September, resigned on 2nd January and retired from politics. On the following day, Marshal Francisco Serrano takes his place as dictator.
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