During "the Anarchy'"of the war between Stephen and Matilda over the throne of England, David I of Scotland had taken advantage of English weakness to seize the lands of Northumbria, directly south of the Scottish border. Stephen was forced to recognise Northumbria as Scottish territory. However, only three years after his accession, the new young English king, Henry II, launched a campaign to take back the region, and succeeded in reclaiming it from the young Malcolm IV.
Editors. "Northumbria regained by Henry II for England". The Literary Encyclopedia. First published 31 July 2012; last revised 30 November -1.
[http://www.litencyc.com/php/stopics.php?rec=true&UID=1958, accessed 28 April 2015.]