In his final years, Henry VIII attempted to regain some of the glory he had enjoyed in the early years of his reign (with, for example, the Battle of the Spurs of 1513). He allied with the embattled Holy Roman Emperor Charles V against an alliance of France and the Ottoman Empire. The war saw heavy attacks by the Franco-Ottoman forces on the Low Countries and Nice, and, in 1544, a joint invasion of France. However, by 1546, it had effectively reached a stalemate, and was eventually ended by the Treaty of Ardres.
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