Aberdeen had been the main sea port base of the Scottish Covenanters, but on 12th September 1644, a Royalist army led by Lord Montrose marched on the town. The following day, they called for its surrender, but the inhabitants refused to give in without a fight. Even though the Covenanters had the larger force, they were defeated, and the Royalist army swept through the town, pillaging, murdering and raping its inhabitants. After three days, Montrose heard that the Covenanting commander, the Marquis of Argyll, was advancing, and so decided to withdraw. Apart from the bloodshed, therefore, the Battle of Aberdeen had little ultimate impact on the progress of the civil war.