After the execution of Charles I in January 1649, his son had proclaimed himself Charles II, and was crowned King at Scone in Scotland. He made an alliance with the Scottish Covenanters, who had been alienated from the increasing radicalism of the English Commonwealth, and war now seemed imminent. Oliver Cromwell travelled northwards with an army of 16,000 men, and on 22nd July crossed the border into Scotland.
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