In the Third English Civil War, the Commonwealth was engaged in a campaign against the Royalist alliance led by the self-proclaimed Charles II in Scotland. Commonwealth commanders Richard Deane and George Monck embarked on an operation involving both land and sea troops. They besieged Blackness Castle, on the south side of the Firth of Forth, and after bombaring it from both sides, soon forced it to surrender.
English engage in an amphibious operation across the Firth of Forth (67 words)
Historical Context Note
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