In the Third English Civil War, the Commonwealth was engaged in a campaign against the Royalist alliance led by the self-proclaimed Charles II in Scotland. Commonwealth commanders Richard Deane and George Monck embarked on an operation involving both land and sea troops. They besieged Blackness Castle, on the south side of the Firth of Forth, and after bombaring it from both sides, soon forced it to surrender.
Please log in to consult the article in its entirety. If you are not a subscriber, please click here to read about membership. All our articles have been written recently by experts in their field, more than 95% of them university professors.