Archibald Campbell, Marquis of Argyll, was a Covenanting leader throughout his military career. He did not take part in the 'Engager' invasion that allied with Charles I in 1648, even welcoming Oliver Cromwell into Edinburgh in October 1648. After the execution of Charles I in January 1649, however, he was shocked into a position of support for Charles II. However, he was unable to secure a central position in the Royalist coterie, and after Charles' defeat at the Battle of Worcester, his position worsened. In August 1652, therefore, Argyll submitted to the English Commonwealth. He was never forgiven for this surrender: on the Restoration in 1660, Charles II had him charged with treason, and ultimately beheaded.