The English Commonwealth was an explicitly republican, anti-monarchist and radical Protestant state, so it is unsurprising that it was greeted with hostility by the France of Louis XIV and Cardinal Mazarin. In July 1652, the French envoy to England was dismissed because France refused to recognise the Commonwealth. In December, however, they gave in to circumstance, and eased relations between the two countries by giving the English Commonwealth their formal recognition.
Please log in to consult the article in its entirety. If you are not a subscriber, please click here to read about membership. All our articles have been written recently by experts in their field, more than 95% of them university professors.