In the Anglo-Spanish War, Cromwell's Protectorate was intervening in a more long-term conflict between Europe's greatest powers, France and Spain. After the end of the Anglo-Dutch War the previous year, the British government decided to form an alliance with France, partly in order to be able to attack Spanish possessions in the West Indies. In the course of the ensuing war, England took control of the island of Jamaica, and in through a joint operation with the French was awarded the port of Dunkirk. Spain and France ended their conflict in the Peace of the Pyrenees, in October 1659, but the state of war betwen England and Spain was only formally ended after the Restoration, almost a year later.
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