In 1873 China's Qing dynasty emperor Tongzhi (27th April, 1856 - 12th January, 1875) granted an audience to representatives of the US, Great Britain, Russia, Holland, France and Japan at the Hall of the Radiant Dawn in the Lake Palace.
Please log in to consult the article in its entirety. If you are a member (student of staff) of a subscribing institution (see List), you should be able to access the LE on campus directly (without the need to log in), and off-campus either via the institutional log in we offer, or via your institution's remote access facilities, or by creating a personal user account with your institutional email address. If you are not a member of a subscribing institution, you will need to purchase a personal subscription. For more information on how to subscribe as an individual user, please see under Individual Subcriptions.