On 4 February 1899, Filipino insurgents, unable to get recognition of independence from the U.S., launched a guerrilla war. Their leader, Emilio Aguinaldo, was captured on 23 May 1901. The Philippine Insurrection ended in 1902.
Richert, Lucas Paul. "Philippines declared an independent republic". The Literary Encyclopedia. First published 01 February 2010; last revised 30 November -1.
[http://www.litencyc.com/php/stopics.php?rec=true&UID=5451, accessed 18 April 2015.]