Philippines declared an independent republic (31 words)

Historical Context Note

  • Lucas Paul Richert (University of Saskatchewan)
  • The Literary Encyclopedia. Volume 10.4.3: Philippine Writing and Culture.


On 4 February 1899, Filipino insurgents, unable to get recognition of independence from the U.S., launched a guerrilla war. Their leader, Emilio Aguinaldo, was captured on 23 May 1901. The Philippine Insurrection ended in 1902.

Richert, Lucas Paul. "Philippines declared an independent republic". The Literary Encyclopedia. First published 01 February 2010
[, accessed 27 October 2016.]