Charles II, son of the executed King Charles I, proclaimed himself king on the death of his father in 1649. However, the English Parliament proclaimed the abolition of the monarchy, and established, first a Commonwealth, then a Protectorate under Oliver Cromwell, that lasted until Cromwell's death in 1658. In the political crisis caused by his death, however, Charles II was able to take back the throne, in a process known as 'the Restoration' which is often extended as a description of his entire reign. This period saw the origin of the 'Whig' and 'Tory' political parties that would effectively monopolise English politics until their re-formulation as 'Liberal' and 'Conservative' in the nineteenth century. Anti-Catholic feeling ran high,…
Editors. "Scots crown Charles II". The Literary Encyclopedia. First published 01 March 2011; last revised 30 November -1.
[http://www.litencyc.com/php/stopics.php?rec=true&UID=610, accessed 26 April 2015.]