The younger brother of Malcolm IV, William was a dramatic contrast to his brother, being warlike and wilful where his predecessor had been pious. He succeeded to the throne on Malcolm's early death in 1165, and his reign was the longest in Scottish history until that of James VI, four centuries later. He was an effective monarch in many respects, but the legacy of his reign was damaged by his insistent attempt to reclaim Northumbria from England. He took part in the Revolt of 1173-4, but at the Battle of Alnwick in 1174, he was captured and taken to Falaise in Normandy. Here he was forced to sign the Treaty of Falaise, which promised that Scotland would henceforth be subordinate to England, and agreed to pay Henry for the costs of his …
Editors. "Reign of King William the Lion of Scotland". The Literary Encyclopedia. First published 31 July 2012; last revised 30 November -1.
[http://www.litencyc.com/php/stopics.php?rec=true&UID=656, accessed 19 April 2015.]