Thomas Hardy: Satires of Circumstance

(2458 words)

Satires of Circumstance was published in 1914: it consists of “Lyrics and Reveries”, “Poems of 1912-13”, and “Miscellaneous Pieces”. Satires was the fourth collection of Hardy’s verse, and it has become famous for the “Poems of 1912-13”, which are about the death of Hardy’s first wife, Emma Lavinia Gifford, who passed away in November 1912. “Circumstance” is a word that also has important functions throughout Hardy’s novel A Pair of Blue Eyes (1873), in which the heroine, Elfride Swancourt, appears to be based on Emma, and where a number of locations from the courtship of Emma and Hardy are visited in the narrative. In the “Poems of 1912-13”, Hardy looks back to his earlier life with …

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White, Adam. "Satires of Circumstance". The Literary Encyclopedia. First published 16 June 2014
[, accessed 27 September 2016.]