In his essay of 1860, The Anthropological Principle in Philosophy,Nikolai Chernyshevskii advances what he considers to be a scientifically justified sociological account of the inevitability of progress in human affairs towards a socialist society based upon the communal ownership of the land. His model of progress insists that any scientific theory of human progress from more primitive to more advanced forms of society must be a continuance of the biological process that has led to the progress from primitive life forms towards the emergence of higher forms of biological life. (Nowadays terms such as “progress”, “primitive”, “advanced” might be regarded as somewhat loaded, but at the time of …
Ellis, Charles. "Proiskhozhdenie teorii blagotvornosti bor’by za zhizn’". The Literary Encyclopedia. First published 24 July 2012; last revised .
[http://www.litencyc.com/php/sworks.php?rec=true&UID=34664, accessed 22 May 2015.]