The title of Götzen-Dämmerung [Twilight of the Idols, 1869], written by Nietzsche in 1888 and published in 1889, parodies Götterdämmerung [Twilight of the Gods, 1876], the last in Richard Wagner’s cycle of four operas which make up Der Ring des Nibelungen. The title is supposed to be “eine Erholung, ein Sonnenfleck” (“a relaxation, a sunspot”) but Nietzsche’s predominantly negative critique in fact is directed against many great philosophers and literary figures, they being the idols Nietzsche wishes to sound out. The subtitle, “Wie …
Gallagher, David. "Die Götzen-Dämmerung". The Literary Encyclopedia. First published 21 December 2010; last revised 30 November -1.
[http://www.litencyc.com/php/sworks.php?rec=true&UID=5593, accessed 19 April 2015.]