A prominent writer, historian, ethnographer, and translator, Panteleimon Kulish (1819–1897) is arguably one of the most controversial figures in the nineteenth-century national revival of Ukraine. He promoted the development of a separate Ukrainian high culture, including a full-fledged literary language and a truly national literature, while supporting the idea of political union with Russia. Kulish was also the first professional Ukrainian writer and journalist who, in order to elude draconian restrictions on Ukrainian-language publications in the Russian Empire, published most of his works in the Austro-Hungarian Empire under one of his many pen names (Pavlo Ratai, Denys Fedorenko, Danylo Koval´, Mykola Volovid, Opanas …
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Danylenko, Andrii. "Panteleimon Kulish". The Literary Encyclopedia. First published 16 January 2017
[https://www.litencyc.com/php/speople.php?rec=true&UID=13821, accessed 22 September 2018.]