Editors. "Congress of Vienna closes". The Literary Encyclopedia. First published 01 March 2010; last revised 30 November -1.
[http://www.litencyc.com/php/stopics.php?rec=true&UID=13763, accessed 27 April 2015.]
After final act is passed. Holland, Belgium and Luxembourg are united to form the Netherlands (by Act of May 31st), Switzerland is to be neutral, East Poland is ceded to Russia and the Western Provinces of Poland to Prussia, Cracow becomes an independent republic, Lombardy and Venetia are restored to Austria, Prussia gains the Rhineland and the northern region of Saxony, Hanover obtains East Friesland and Hildesheim, the German Confederation is established under Presidency of Austria (by Act of 8th June), the Bourbon monarch Ferdinand VII is restored in Spain, the Braganza dynasty returns to the Portuguese throne, Ferdinand IV is recognised as King of Two Sicilies, the Pope and the minor Italian princes are restored, and Britain retains …
Please log in to consult the article in its entirety. If you are not a subscriber, please click here to read about membership. All our articles have been written recently by experts in their field, more than 95% of them university professors.