War between the English barons and King Henry III had broken out the previous year, after the attempted governmental arrangement proposed in the Provisions of Oxford of 1258 had failed. This civil war was the closest England came to overthrowing the monarchy before the Commonwealth period of the seventeenth century. At the Battle of Lewes, in Sussex, in 1264, Henry III was captured by the rebel barons, led by Simon de Montfort, Earl of Leicester. In the aftermath of this victory, Simon de Montfort effectively took over rule of the kingdom. He began to institute far-reaching reforms, extending the basic form of parliamentary representation initiated by the Magna Carta to include non-nobles and representatives of each county. However, …
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Editors. "Battle of Lewes; Simon de Montfort governs England". The Literary Encyclopedia. First published 31 July 2012
[https://www.litencyc.com/php/stopics.php?rec=true&UID=1970, accessed 16 January 2018.]