The Committee of Both Kingdoms was a joint body, representing both the English Parliamentarians and the Scots Covenanters after the two formally became allies in their wars against King Charles I. The two parties signed a treaty, The Solemn League and Covenant, which vowed to protect the reformed religion in both countries agains the 'papist' Charles. After the end of the first civil war, however, when Charles brokered a deal with the Scots to restore his position on the throne, the alliance broke down, and the Committee reverted to an English-only group, known as the Derby House Committee.
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