After the execution of Charles I in January 1649, his son had proclaimed himself Charles II, and was crowned King at Scone in Scotland. He made an alliance with the Scottish Covenanters, who had been alienated from the increasing radicalism of the English Commonwealth, and the third British civil war broke out. After Oliver Cromwell's Commonwealth army won a decisive victory at the Battle of Dunbar in September 1650, the New Model Army occupied Scotland, including stationing a garrison at Hamilton, in South Lanarkshire. A group of Covenanters made a surprise attack in the Battle of Hieton (Scots for 'high town'), but they were easily defeated.
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