Commercial refrigeration in US; technique refined in Australia (63 words)

Historical Context Note

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Alexander Twining (5th July, 1801- 22nd November, 1884), an engineer and a professor mathematics, civil engineering, and astronomy, obtained patents for vapour-compression refrigeration in 1850 and 1853. In 1856 he began commercial refrigeration in the United States. Australian James Harrison (April 1816 - 3rd September, 1893) introduced commercial vapour-compression refrigeration to breweries and meat packing houses in 1861, having been granted patents for an ether liquid-vapour compression refrigeration system in 1854.

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